You either need to apply thick layers of the SPF 50+ cream or put on suitable protective clothing. You don’t need to do both.
To learn more about sun protection for everyone, explore responses from dermatologists and allergists to questions submitted by internet users during chat sessions organised by Bioderma.
Black or mixed-race skin types are indeed less likely to suffer from skin cancer or premature ageing because they have a lot of melanin (notably eumelanin, the brown or black type of melanin with a photoprotective power) and are therefore better protected against the sun.
Yes, you should pay particular attention to protecting the décolleté, face, the back of the hands and the instep.
It depends on your own preference. They provide the same protection.
There is no such thing as total sun block. Even with a 50+ factor, it is possible to tan. With such a factor, tanning is gradual and lasts longer.
It’s not sun cream that dries out the skin but rather sun exposure. It is best to use moisturising creams after exposure.
People with the skin of a redhead cannot tan. Indeed, skin pigmentation is due to melanocytes. These cells produce melanin, a coloured pigment. There are two types of melanin: pheomelanin (red or orange melanin, potentially photo-aggressive, which means that it produces free radicals) and eumelanin (brown or black melanin with photoprotective power). Red-haired people only produce pheomelanins, which is why they cannot tan and must protect themselves by using a SPF 50+ sun cream.
You need to put on a generous amount of product and then massage.
You must apply a thick layer of sun cream every two hours.
I recommend an oral food supplement 2 weeks before you go out in the sun, and for 30 days after this, and a high protection factor sun cream.
Firstly, it would be preferable to prepare your skin with a betacarotene-based food supplement 2 weeks before you go on your summer holiday. When you are out in the sun, use thick layers of sun cream with maximum factor (SPF 50+) and reapply every two hours. Redheads only burn in the sun; they cannot tan.
You have indeed used up a large part of your sun capital and the unfortunately the damage has already been done. This is a natural “actinic” (due to the sun) ageing process. Conclusion: avoid the sun and protect yourself more and more.
All monoi products are dangerous because they reflect UV rays and burn the skin.
You’re absolutely right. That is why areas of the skin that have been sunburned (shoulders in particular) develop "scars" (pigmentation marks) faster, and possibly skin cancer later on.
It’s not usually necessary to use a moisturising cream under a sun cream. However, if you want photoprotection during the day and have already applied a moisturising cream in the morning, there is no reason not to use both creams at the same time.
In theory, a protection factor less than or equal to 20 means that the sun product is capable of protecting you from the sun. In practice, the actual protection factors of these products are much lower because they are never applied liberally enough and so their protective power is very low. That is why it is best to choose higher protection factors (for normal skin, SPF 30 is a good compromise).
No, there is no such thing as total sun block, only very high protection.
Black skin types must be protected as they also burn in the sun. However, a sun protection factor of 15 or 20 is sufficient.
Not at all. This simply means that your phototype is fairly dark and that your melanocytes (pigmentation cells) remain active for a large part of the year.
I think that in your case, you should use sun creams at the beginning of your holidays: it will keep you from getting a sunburn without keeping you from tanning. Once you have a tan, external photoprotection is less important, but remember that tanning easily does not provide protection against the long-term effects of the sun (ageing and skin cancer).
There is no such thing as a genuinely waterproof sun cream; it must be reapplied frequently, in particular for children. All the more so as ultraviolet rays are reflected by the water in a swimming pool.
Once a sun cream is open, you cannot use it for more than six months. In addition, people using these sun creams that have been opened for a long time run the risk of allergic contact eczema.
SPF means Sun Protection Factor: it shows the ability of a sun product to protect from sunburn. The UVA protection index simply shows the ability of a sun product to more or less stop ultraviolet A rays. There is no real relationship between the two. Why is it important to know the UVA index? Quite simply because UVA rays are responsible for a non-negligible percentage of exposure’s long-term effects (malignant melanoma, ageing, etc.). A good external photoprotector should have a high SPF (30 or more) and also a high UVA protection index (at least one-third of the SPF).
An ideal product would indeed be one you would only need to apply once a day. In practice, evidence that this type of product offers photoprotection throughout the day still remains limited. I personally recommend re-applying products as needed for your activity (sweating, swimming, etc.).
After-sun cream is used to moisturise the skin and prolong the tan.
It is useless to put sun cream onto sunburn; you must apply a moisturising and soothing cream. It is imperative to wait for the sunburn to heal before exposing yourself to the sun again.
To make your tan last longer, you can take capsules for one to two months and apply an after-sun product every day in summer after being in the sun.
Exposed areas must be protected (décolleté, arms and legs). In addition, sun exposure is more intense in the mountains, so you need to protect yourself with an SPF 50+ sun cream and wear suitable clothing.
Of course, you can get sunburn while in the water as some of the UV rays filter through the water.